Are Fog Machines Bad for The Environment?

  • By: Kevin
  • Date: March 19, 2023
  • Time to read: 6 min.
Amazon Affiliate Disclaimer

As an affiliate, we earn from qualifying purchases. We get commissions for purchases made through links in this post.

Fog machines are widely used in various events and establishments, creating a mystifying atmosphere and enhancing visual effects. However, there has been concern regarding the environmental impact of such equipment.

The question arises as to whether artificial fog machines are harmful to the environment and the health of individuals. This essay delves into the impact of smoke machines on the environment and identifies the potential risks that they pose to the ecosystem.

What Is a Fog Machines

A fog machine is a device that produces a dense vapor, often used in theatrical or entertainment settings to create special effects such as simulating smoke or mist.

It works by heating a special fluid, typically a mixture of water and propylene glycol or mineral oil, which heat then evaporates into a mist that is released into the air. The fog machine can be controlled to produce either a continuous stream of fog or periodic bursts, depending on the desired effect.

Environmental Impact of Fog Machines

Fog machines are commonly used in various settings, from music concerts to theater productions, to create a dramatic effect. However, there is growing concern about fog effects and their environmental impact, particularly in terms of air pollution and waste.

One of the primary concerns is the use of fog machine fluid, which typically contains harmful chemicals. Some of the chemicals contained in fog fluid include glycol ethers, which can irritate the eyes, nose, and throat, and formaldehyde, which is a known carcinogen.

When fog machines are used excessively or improperly, they can release these dangerous chemicals into the air, creating a health hazard for performers and audience members.

Another environmental concern is the waste generated by smoke machines. Fog fluid containers are often small and disposable plastic containers, which means they can quickly accumulate in landfills.

Additionally, some fog machines emit smoke or vapors, which can contribute to outdoor pollution.

In response to these concerns, some fog machine manufacturers have started producing eco-friendly fog liquids that are less harmful to the environment.

Chemical Makeup of The Fog Fluids and The Health Risks

Fog fluids are typically composed of glycol or glycerin, water, and additives such as fragrance oils, preservatives, and colorants. However, a lot of these additives are not in the majority of fog liquids for safety concerns. Some fog liquids contain triethylene glycol (TEG) as a primary ingredient.

These fluids are heated to create a fog effect that is used at theatres, nightclubs, or haunted houses. However, the use of fog fluid has been linked to a few health risks, especially when used excessively or in poorly ventilated areas.

One health risk associated with fog fluids is respiratory and eye irritation. Exposure to fog juice in poorly ventilated areas can lead to coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Long-term exposure may also cause chronic respiratory issues such as asthma. TEG is a known irritant and is a potential health hazard if not handled properly. It can irritate the skin, eyes, and respiratory system and may cause nausea, vomiting, and headache if ingested or inhaled in large amounts.

Long-term exposure to TEG may lead to liver and kidney damage, reproductive and developmental problems, and cancer. Therefore, it is essential to use personal protective equipment and follow safety procedures when handling TEG to minimize the risk of exposure and health effects.

Here is a quick breakdown of different fog fluid chemicals:

  • Glycerol – a viscous, colorless liquid used to increase the density and thickness of the fog
  • Propylene glycol – a clear, odorless liquid used as a solvent and to prevent freezing in the fog machine
  • Triethylene glycol – a colorless, odorless liquid used to improve the dispersion of fog particles
  • Diethylene glycol – a clear, colorless, practically odorless liquid added to increase the fluid’s hygroscopicity
  • Ethylene glycol – a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting liquid used as an antifreeze in the fog machine
  • Water – the main component of fog fluid, used as a carrier for the other chemicals and to dilute the mixture.

Fog Machine Emission on A Global Scale

Fog machines are devices that use a heating element to vaporize a special fluid and produce a visible fog or mist effect. The fluid typically contains a mixture of water, propylene glycol, and other chemicals, such as surfactants, preservatives, and odorants.

On a global scale, the fog generated through the use of liquid air is considered safe in comparison to the hazards associated with fog produced with carbon dioxide or liquid nitrogen. This is because liquid air bears the same components as regular atmospheric air, which includes a breathable amount of oxygen.

Fog Machine Energy Use on A Global Scale

The effect of smoke machine energy use on a global scale is relatively small in comparison to other sources of greenhouse gas emissions. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the entertainment industry’s energy consumption accounts for only about 1% of global energy use.

Nowadays, smoke machines are very energy efficient from where they started out. This helps keep the cost and use of energy low, as mentioned above.

However, it is still important to note that the energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions of fog machines are not insignificant. While the specific emissions from fog machines will vary based on factors such as the size of the machine and the energy source used, like electricity, all types of smoke machines contribute to increased energy demand and carbon emissions.

Furthermore, the use of fog machines and other theatrical effects in entertainment productions can have even broader environmental impacts beyond their individual energy use.

The production and disposal of these machines and their associated fluids can have significant environmental impacts.

The production phase requires the extraction and processing of raw materials such as metals, plastics, and chemicals. This can lead to environmental degradation and pollution of water, land, and air.

The energy required to manufacture these machines also contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change.

Regulating The Fog Machine Industry

The use of smoke machines is regulated by local and national laws regarding health and safety, fire safety, and noise pollution. Specific regulations may vary depending on the type of event and the venue in which fog machines are used.

The fog fluid used in how fog machines work may also be regulated, as it may contain chemicals that can be harmful if ingested, inhaled, or applied to the skin. It is important for event planners and venue managers to be aware of these regulations and ensure that fog machines are used in accordance with laws and guidelines.

In addition, manufacturers of fog machines may be subject to safety and quality control regulations to ensure that their products do not pose a risk to consumers.

6 Natural Alternatives to Smoke Machines

1. Dry ice: Using dry ice produces a thick, low-lying, dense fog that gives off a spooky, haunting effect. Just be sure to handle it with gloves and take all necessary safety precautions.

2. Bubble machines: Bubble machines produce a whimsical, ethereal haze that can add a touch of magic to any event.

3. Smoke pots: Smoke pots can produce a short burst of thick white fog or smoke that can be used for theatrical effects. They are typically used for outdoor events.

4. Incense or essential oil diffusers: Burning incense or diffusing essential oils can release a fragrant mist that can be used to create an eerie atmosphere.

5. Water vaporizers: Water vaporizers can also create a misty effect that can enhance the ambiance of a room.

6. Damp towels or spritz bottles: Damp towels or spritz bottles can be used to create a misty atmosphere that is perfect for creating a serene, relaxing environment.

Can the Use of Fog Machines Contribute to Acid Rain?

Fog machines typically use a mixture of water and glycol to produce a foggy effect. These chemicals are not known to contribute to acid rain formation.

However, if the fog machine is being used in an area where there is high pollution, then the fog particles can bond with pollutants in the air, which can lead to the formation of acid rain in the area. So, it’s not the fog machine itself that contributes to acid rain, but rather the presence of pollutants in the atmosphere.


In conclusion, the widespread use of fog machines in various industries and events has contributed to several environmental concerns, including air pollution, noise pollution, energy consumption, and waste generation. Although fog machines create visually appealing effects, their negative impact on the environment cannot be ignored.

Individuals and organizations need to take sustainable actions to limit the use of fog machines, such as implementing alternative visual effects or using environmentally-friendly fog fluids.

Likewise, it is crucial for authorities to regulate and monitor the use of fog machines to minimize their environmental impact. As a global community, we need to be mindful of our actions and prioritize the protection of the environment for a sustainable future.